Khajuraho Temples are among the most beautiful medieval monuments in the country. These temples were built by the Rajput Chandela ruler between AD 900 and 1130.




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Thursday, 31 August 2017

Chandela

CHANDELA DYNASTY


The Chandela’s dynasty was a royal dynasty of Central India. They ruled most of the Bundelkhand area (Jejakabhukti) between the 9-13th century.
They ruled as the Gurjara-Pratiharas of Kanyakubja (Kannauj). Coming off 10th century Chandela ruler Yashovarman became independent he continued to acknowledge the Pratihara. The time of his successor Dhanga, the Chandelas had become a sovereign power. They fought so many battles with the neighbouring dynasties, especially the Paramaras of Malwa and the Kalachuris of Tripuri in 11th century, the Chandelas raided by the northern Muslim dynasty, including the Ghaznavids and the Ghurids. The Chandela power ended around the beginning of the 13th century, by Chahamana and Ghurid invasions.
The Chandelas are well known for their Art and Architecture, most for the temples which are situated in the capital Khajuraho. They also commissioned a number of temples, water bodies, palaces and forts at other places, including their strongholds of Ajaigarh, Kalinjar and their later capital Mahoba.

HISTORY

The Chandela belong to Gurjara-prathiaras community. Nannuka was the founder of the dynasty and a king of small kingdom around Khajuraho. According to the inscriptions Vakpati defeated several enemy. Vakpati’s son Jayashakti consolidated the chandela power. According to another inscription, the chandela dynasty is named “jejakabhukti” after the jayashakti. Rahila’s son played a very important role in restoring the of Prathira King Mahipla.
Harsha’s son Yashovarman acknowledged the prathira and become practically independent. Yashovarman conquered the most important fortress of Kalanjara. Dhanga’s son gonda apper to have the teritory inhertied. Vidyadhara killed the King of Kannauj for protect his capital instead of fighting Mahmud of ghazni. The Chandela architecture reached its maximum power at the period.
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Wednesday, 16 August 2017

Vamana Avatar

VAMANA AVATAR

Vamana mean dwarf, is the fifth avatar of god Vishnu. God vishnu rebirth to restore balance by defeating the asura king Bali with a large power over the universe. According to hindu mythology, the asura king after his exploits and conquest a gift giving ceremony held to consolidate his power. God Vishnu appears at this ceremony as a dwarf avatar Brahmin called Vamana. When his turn to receive a gift from Bali. He offers wealth to Vamana. Vamana refuses everything and said he would just like three steps worth of land. Bali finds the dwarf's request very small and he grants it. Vamana then grows into a giant. In the first step, he covers the earth. In second, he takes the heavens. For the third, Bali offers his head on which Vamana steps sending the demon king to the Patala (hell).
According to the Rigveda it describes Vishnu as that benevolent god who in three steps defined all there is in the universe. The giant form of Vamana is also known as Trivikrama ("three steps").

ONAM FESTIVAL

In one side of the Vamana avatar, when asura bali offered himself for Vishnu's third step, it was an act of bali's devotion. Vishnu granted him a boon. Bali chose to revisit earth, once every year, the lands and people he previously ruled. The revisit of bali is celebrated as festival of Onam, as reminder of the bali’s rule and his humility in keeping his promise before Vishnu.
According to Nanditha Krishna, a simpler form of this legend, one without Mahabali, is found in the Rigveda and the Vedic text Shatapatha Brahmana where a solar deity is described with powers of Vishnu. This story likely grew over time, and is in part allegorical, where Bali is a metaphor for thanksgiving offering after a bounty of rice harvest during monsoon, and Vishnu is the metaphor of the Kerala sun and summer that precedes the Onam. According to mr.dlal, the story of bali is important to Onam in Kerala, but similar bali legends are significant in the region of Balia in Uttar Pradesh, Bawan also in the same state, Bharuch in Gujarat, and Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra. The story is significant not because bali's rule ended, but it emphasizes the Hindu belief in cyclical nature of events, that no individual, no ruler and nothing lasts forever, except the virtues and self understanding that overcomes all sorrow.
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Vamana Temple

VAMANA TEMPLE KHAJURAHO


VAMANA TEMPLE is for lord Vamana, an avatar of Lord Vishnu. It's a fifth avatar of lord vishnu. A dwarf avatar of lord vishnu. It’s a part of the khajuraho group of monument and a UNESCO world heritage.
It is located in the eastern part of khajuraho and 200 meter to the north-east to Brahma temple.
The architecture view of vamana temple has a sanctum, maha-mandapa, vestibule and an entrance porch.
According to tourist point of view it’s a great temple with unique architecture and sculpture.
It’s one of the major temple in khajuraho and  important relic to chandela dynasty. The exterior walls of vamana temple has sculptures of apsaras in sensuous posture. it's a religious place and having a great history about chandela rulers and vamana temple. The temple shows a bond between chandela and lord vamana.

The opening timing of vamana temple
  • 05:00-12:00
  • 16:00-21:00
  • It opens all day

NOTE : There is no entry fee
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Saturday, 12 August 2017

Jain temple of Khajuraho

JAIN TEMPLE OF KHAJURAHO
The Jain is one of the ancient religion of india. The aim of jains life is to achieve the purity of soul. The main goals of their life are Non violence, Non attachment. Followers of jainism take five main vows Ahimsa, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacharya, Aparigraha.  Namokara mantra is the basic prayer of jainism. Jainism have two to four million followers around the world. Most follower are residing in india.
The Jain temples are situated on east-southeast region of Khajuraho monuments. The jain temple called Chausath jogini temple features 64 jogini, while Ghantai temple features bells sculptured on its pillars.

Architecture of the temples


The temple, follows a geometrical design called vastu-purusha-mandala. The structure of temple  has three main components Mandala means circle, Purusha is universal essence of Hindu tradition, while Vastu means the dwelling structure.
The design lays out in a symmetrical, concentrically layered, self-repeating structure around the core of the temple called Garbhagriya, where the important principle purusha and the important deity. This symmetry and structure of temple is derived from central beliefs, myths and mathematical principles.
The circle of mandala circumscribe the square. The square is considered divine for its perfection and as a symbolic product of knowledge and human thought, while circle is considered earthly, human and observed in everyday life (moon, sun, horizon, water drop, rainbow). Each supports the other. The square is divided into perfect 64 sub-squares called padas.]
Most Khajuraho temples deploy the 64 padas grid Manduka. vastupurushamandala with pitha mandala is the square grid incorporated in the spires.The primary deity are located in the grid’s.
Khajuraho temples use the 8x8 vastupurusamandala. Manduka grid layout plan found in hindu temples. Above the temple’s brahma padas is a shikhara(kind of aeroplane) that rises symmetrically above the central core. It is in a circles and turning-squares concentric with design that flows from one to the other as it rises towards the sky.

The architecture reflects the Hindu beliefs through its design, structure and arrangement of its part. The mandapas and the arts are arranged in the Khajuraho temples in a well aligned patterns each image or sculpture is distinctive in its own way. The placement of the images are not random but together they express ideas, just like connected words form sentences and paragraphs to compose ideas.This curved pattern that is common in Hindu temples. Various statues and panels have inscriptions. Many of the inscriptions on the temple walls are poems with double meanings, something that the complex structure of Sanskrit allows in creative compositions

Jain Temple of khajuraho
  1. Parshavnath temple
  2. Adinath temple

PARSHAVNATH TEMPLE

HISTORY
The temple was built in 10th century. The temple was built by Pahila in 954 AD. It contains inscription, mentioning garden and future safeguard to temple. The garden are named as Chander-vatika, Pahila-vatika, Laghuchandra-vatika, Shankra-vatika, Amra-vatika, Dhanga-vadi. This temple was built in Chandella dhanga reign. This temple is known for its magic number. The temple has been classified as MONUMENT OF NATIONAL IMPORTANCE by the Archaeological Survey of India.
ART AND ARCHITECTURE
Parshavnath temple is the largest temple in Jains Temple of Khajuraho. It has an entrance, a small hall, a large hall called mandapa and a sanctum. The walls of temple have group of three sculpture. These sculpture feature flying couple, graceful women, dancer, musician and celestial being. The sculpture are like of lakshman temple but it has not any erotic sculpture except an apsara mastubrating with an object.

MAGIC SQUARE
The temple has a inscription called Jaina square or magic square. This magic score are very old magic square 4⨯4 magic box. The magic square contain 1to16 numbers. The sum of the numer in ever hotizontal row, vertical row is 34.

ADINATH TEMPLE

The jain temple is dedicated to The Jain Trithankara Adinath located in khajuraho, Madhya pradesh, India. It’s a part of UNESCO world heritage site.
HISTORY
The Adinath temple was built around 11th century CE. It was built after vamana temple. It is also classified as important monument by The Archaeological Survey of India. 
ARCHITECTURE
The design of the Adinatha temple is similar to the Vamana temple. There are only a few differences between these two temples example the top row of the outer wall of the temple drawing a art form of a flying vidyadhara. The curved tower of the temple is in better proportions than Vamana temple. It combines with a more evolved sculptural style, which suggests that the temple was constructed after the Vamana temple.
The two major parts of the temple survived: the vestibule and the sanctum. The roof of the vestibule is known for its elegant design.
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Thursday, 3 August 2017

About Khajuraho temple

INTRODUCTION


Hello readers this is my first blog.In this blog i will tell you about a very famous ancient temple of india khajuraho temple. It is the one among three UNESCO world heritage place of Madhya pradesh. This temple is famous for his famous architecture, sculpture, statues. Khajuraho temple is unique in itself in his category.


KHAJURAHO TEMPLE : THE ANCIENT TEMPLE OF INDIA


LOCATION

The Khajuraho Group of Monuments is a group of Hindu and Jain temples in,India. Khajuraho temple is located in chhatarpur district of madhya pradesh about 175 kilometres (109 mi) southeast of Jhansi and 620 kilometres (385 mi) southeast of New Delhi. The temples are near a small town also known as Khajuraho, with a population of about 20,000 people (2001 Census).The temples are famous for their nagara-style architectural symbolism and their erotic sculptures. Most Khajuraho temples were built between 950 and 1050 by the Chandela dynasty. According to current historical records Khajuraho temple had 85 temple by the 12th century, spread over 20 square kilometers.

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HISTORY

Khajuraho Temples are among the most beautiful medieval monuments in the country. These temples were built by the Rajput Chandela ruler between AD 900 and 1130. It was the golden period of Chandela rulers.Most temples were built during the reigns of the Hindu kings Yashovarman and Dhanga. Yashovarman legacy is best exhibited by The laxman temple and Vishvanath temple best highlights King Dhanga reign.The largest and currently most famous surviving temple is Kandariya Mahadeva built in the reign of King Vidhyara. These temples were built about 35 miles from the medieval city of Mahoba,the capital of the Chandela dynasty, in the Kalinjar region. In ancient literature, their Empire has been referred to as Jijhoti, Jejahoti, Chih-chi-to and Jejakabhukti.The temple was once mentioned by Abu rihan-al-biruni, the great persian historian who won over Mahmud Ghazni in his raid of Kalinjar in 1022 CE. He mentioned khajuraho as the capital of jajahuti.

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Central Indian region, where Khajuraho temples are, remained in the control of many different Muslim dynasties from 13th century through the 18th century. In this period, some temples were desecrated, followed by a long period when they were left in neglect.In 1495 CE, for example, Sikandar Lodi’s campaign of temple destruction included Khajuraho.The remoteness and isolation of Khajuraho protected the Hindu and Jain temples from continued destruction by Muslims.Over the centuries, vegetation and forests over grew, took over the temples.In the 1830s, local Hindus guided a British surveyor, T.S. Burt, to the temples and they were thus rediscovered by the global audience.Alexander Cunningham later reported, few years after the rediscovery, that the temples were secretly in use by yogis and thousands of Hindus would arrive for pilgrimage during Shivaratri celebrated annually in February or March based on a lunar calendar. In 1852, Maisey prepared earliest drawings of the Khajuraho temples.
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The origin of name Kharjuravāhaka, is derived from an ancient language Sanskrit it means kharjura(date palm) and vāhaka, means "one who carries". According to historians the temples had two golden date-palm trees as their gate (missing when they were rediscovered).  According to historians Kharjuravāhaka means scorpion bearer, which is another name for Lord Shiva (who wears snakes and scorpion garlands in his fierce form).Cunningham’s nomenclature and systematic documentation work in 1850s and 1860s have been widely adopted and continue to be in use.He grouped the temples into the Western group around Lakshmana, Eastern group around Javeri, and Southern group around Duladeva.


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Khajuraho is one of the holy sites which linked to Lord Shiva (the other three are Kedarnath, Kashiand, Gaya. Its origin and design is a subject of scholarly studies. Shobita Punja has proposed that the temple’s origin reflect the Hindu mythology in which Khajuraho is the place where Shiva got married; with Raghuvamsha, Matangeshvara honoring ‘’Matanga’’, or god of love.


KHAJURAHO TEMPLE

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The temple is located in between vindhya mountain range which is located in central india. According to ancient local people Lord Shiva and other gods enjoyed visiting the dramatic hills formation in Kalinjar area. The khajuraho is the centre of this region. According to hindu tradition building temples where god love to play. The temples are situated near river another feature of hindu temples. The current rivers includes Sib river,Khajur river and Khudar river. According to people there is 69 rivers of which 56 are physically identified by archeologists so far.The relative layout of temple have masculine and feminine deities and symbols highlights the interdependence. The art work symbolically highlight the four goals of life considered necessary and proper in hinduism - Dharma, Kama, Moksha and Artha.Of the surviving temple 6 are dedicated to Lord Shiva and his consorts, 8 to lord Vishnu and his affinities, 1 to Lord Ganesha,  to Sun god, 3 to Jains Tirthankars. An overall examination of temple suggest that the hindu symbolic Manadla principle design of square and circles is present in each temple plan and design.
The temples have a rich display of carved statues. They are famous for their erotic sculpture, sexual themes cover less than 10% of the temple sculpture. The erotic scene panels are balance with the non-sexual images.The viewer has to look closely.The arts cover numerous aspects of human life and values considered important in Hindu pantheon. The sclupture are arranged  to express central idea of Hinduism. All the ideas from Agamas are mostly expressed in Khajuraho temples - Avyakta, Vyaktavyakta and Vyakta.
The Beejamandal temple is under excavation. All temples, the Matangeshvara temple is an active site of worship. It is another square grid temple which is 2.5 metre high and 1.1 metre in diameter lingam, placed on a 7.6 metres diameter platform.
The most visited temple, Kandariya Mahadev. It has an area of about 6,500 square feet and a spire that rises 116 feet.
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